Marci Hoffman is the International & Foreign Law Librarian at the E.B. Williams Law Library, Georgetown University Law Center. In addition to her reference and research expertise, Marci often lectures on foreign and international legal research. Marci writes frequently on international legal research and is the author of an extensive Bibliography for Research on International Human Rights Law, 6 Minn. J. Global Trade 200 (1996), along with Prof. David Weissbrodt. Marci and Prof. Weissbrodt also designed and maintain the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library on the Web. She is the editor and an author of the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law.
Editor’s Note: Please refer to the updated version of this article at //www.llrx.com/features/trade3.htm. You will be automatically redirected to that page shortly.
Editor’s note: This article is an update to the Guide to International Trade Law Sources on the Internet (posted December 1, 1998). There are numerous additions, changes for some Web site addresses, as well as some deletions. These additions and changes are indicated by (yellow background color) for easy identification.
Goods and services are sold every day across national boundaries. These transactions are subject to a myriad of laws, regulations, restrictions and special arrangements. This complex web of laws and regulations is comprised of unilateral measures, meaning national or domestic laws, and further complicated by the international law expressed in trade agreements. There are basically three levels of international trade agreements: bilateral relationships (Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement), multilateral arrangements (GATT and the WTO), and regional agreements (NAFTA, MERCOSUR).
When conducting research in international trade, often the first step is to locate the relevant treaties. Since international trade is such a complex area, there is a need for information beyond locating the text of international agreements. Many international organizations focus on trade and transnational business transactions and provide useful resources. U.S. governmental agencies offer many resources to assist companies with import and export ventures. Guides on doing business in a particular country may be of use in determining the impact of trade agreements, applicable domestic laws, and other country conditions that might affect trade. Finally, statistics on economic growth, imports and exports, and other data are often needed in order to make sound decisions. These are just a few of the many different pieces of information needed in this complex and ever expanding area.1
One guide cannot possibly provide access to all trade and related information. The focus of this fully annotated guide is on some of the major international trade sources available on the Internet. Specifically, this guide will cover the following:
- starting points (research guides, bibliographies, and collections of links)
- collections of international trade agreements and resources for the major multilateral trade agreements and the regional trading areas
- selected international organizations
- U.S. government resources
- guides for doing business in other countries
While the Internet is a good tool for accessing information about international trade, it cannot provide all of the materials needed for researching this topic. Many valuable secondary sources are not available on the Internet. Most of the information and documents referred to in this guide are provided by international organizations, the U.S. government, or an educational institution and are free of charge, but a few fee-based sites are included as well. Care should be taken when citing to and relying upon any document or information obtained from the Internet.
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As with any topic, it is helpful to start with a guide or list of links – a place where someone else has done some of the work for you. These resources can be of particular use to the researcher who is unfamiliar with the area of international trade. In addition to these electronic guides, there are several useful print sources.2
Trade Winds Across the Plains: International Trade Resources in the Information Age, Jean M. Wenger, presented at the Midwest LibraryFest, October 1998. Comprehensive list of annotated links to international trade sites and related topics (domestic law, antitrust, banking, etc.). A great place to begin exploring the resources available on the web for this topic.
American Society of International Law, Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law. The chapters on researching international economic law, treaties, the UN, and private international law are particularly helpful for the international trade researcher.
WTO/GATT Research, Jeanne Rehberg, New York University School of Law Library, October 1999. This focus of this excellent guide is both print and electronic sources for WTO and GATT research.
Researching International Trade Law, Marci Hoffman, Georgetown University Law Library, August 1999. The guide focuses on print and electronic sources for researching the U.S.- Canada Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, and the GATT/WTO. This guide was prepared for use at the Georgetown University Law Library.
The U.S. Trade Commission (USTC) offers a “Bibliography of Trade-Related Law Journal Articles.”
Bibliography on the CISG and UNIDROIT Principles, Pace University School of Law. Contains references to print and electronic sources and can be searched by keywords. This resource is available in a number of different languages.
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods: Guide to Research and Literature, by Claire Germain, Cornell University Law School. Detailed research guide that explains the history of the agreement and provides references to relevant print and electronic sources.
The Harvard Law Library offers a research guide focusing the World Trade Organization. This guide contains references to print sources contained in the Harvard Law Library as well as links to web sites
Hieros Gamos, Guide to Global Trade Law. Extensive collection of links to agreements, national regimes, other sources of information, discussion groups, and publications.
Several other good collections of links are available. Index to Sources of Trade Information on the Internet, compiled by the International Trade Centre, the site contains substantial collections of statistics, market information, and trade opportunities. See also the University of Bologna, Research Guide to International Law on the Internet: International Trade Law and Francis Auburn (Associate Professor, University of Western Australia), International Trade Law. The Federation of International Trade Associations provides International Trade Web Resources, an annotated list of more than 1000 links to web sites related to international trade. This list is indexed and divided into 21 topics and is searchable by keywords.
International Economic Law Group of ASIL has a good assortment of links to trade-related sites, plus other useful information, such as full-text scholarly papers and journal articles, and other research tools.
Business related guides might also be of interest, see International Business Law Resources on the WWW.
The sites listed below provide the complete text of many international trade agreements plus links to a variety of other useful trade-related sites on the web. Most of these web sites are good places to begin one’s research.
Lex Mercatoria (International Trade/Commercial Law Monitor). If I only had one place to go for access to the full‑text of major trade related agreements, this would be it. This web site also has many international agreements and documents in areas related to trade (contracts, sales, arbitration, etc.). The site is well organized and offers a subject index, a search mechanism, and links to other sites.
Trade and Commerical Relations (Multilaterals Project, Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy). A good collection of basic trade related agreements with links to a few important treaty collections and treaty secretariats. This site also provides a searching mechanism.
Texts of Trade Agreements (OAS). This is an excellent collection of trade agreements between countries in the Western Hemisphere (both bilateral and multilateral). Many of documents are available in English, French, and Spanish. The home page of the OAS Trade Unit contains information on investment, intellectual property and Dispute Settlement (Andean Community, GATT, NAFTA, and WTO), and links to official sources for trade and investment information.
Trade and Related Agreements (Treaty Compliance Center, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). Contains the texts of most trade agreements to which the United States is a party and related documents that are important to business. Documents are arranged by agreement or treaty title, by country/signatory, and by issue. In addition, the texts in the database can be searched by keyword.
Private International Law Database (U.S. Dept. of State). This newly redesigned site provides information on private international law transactions. See the “Transactions Law” section for the text of agreements on a variety of areas: EDI, arbitration, finance and banking, and contracts. There are also sections covering model laws and rules, conventions where the U.S. is a party, and other useful information. For more information on web sites related to private international law, see the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law: Private International Law.
UN Treaty Collection. This site contains the United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS), a collection of treaties and international agreements registered or filed and recorded with and published by the Secretariat since 1946. Another very important tool available at this site is Multilateral Treaties Deposited with the Secretary-General, a publication that provides information on the status of 486 major multilateral instruments deposited with the Secretary-General.
National Law Center for Inter-American Trade. Contains legislative materials from various Latin American countries, including access to Mexican legislation and the Mexican Diario Oficial. The database contains an extensive collection of links to other legal information resources relating to trade and the Americas, including the full-text of certain trade agreements. While this is a fee-based service, much of the international trade information is available for free. There is also a biweekly newsletter, Inter-American Trade Report, which covers trade, commerce, and legal developments across Latin America.
The Internet Law Library, Treaties and International Law. This site contains links to important trade treaties and international documents.
B. Major Multilateral and Regional Agreements
Many of the organizations or secretariats for important trade agreements have created web sites aimed at providing information about specific trading arrangements. If you cannot locate a specific trade agreement below, be sure to also check some of the collections mentioned above.
Andean Community. Based on the Cartagena Agreement, this pact seeks to harmonize the trade and investment regimes of its members. Its web page contains information about the community, legislation and jurisprudence, and publications and documents. Some of the pages are available only in Spanish.
CARICOM (Caribbean Common Market). Established in 1973 to from a common market for trade and to promote economic cooperation among its member states. The site contains information about CARICOM, documents, projects and news.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA). EFTA was established in 1960 by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK with the goal of removing import duties, quotas and other obstacles to trade in Western Europe and of upholding liberal, non-discriminatory practices in world trade. Six members have left EFTA to join the EU and there are now four Member States: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. The site provides access to the legal texts, information sheets, and statistics.
MERCOSUR (Southern Cone Common Market Treaty). Created in 1991, its aim is to dismantle trade barriers and encourage cross-border investment. Most of the important documents are in Spanish. See also the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada MERCOSUR site. This is a very comprehensive site that contains treaties related to MERCOSUR, statistical information, recent developments on integration, and country profiles.
NAFTA Secretariat. Trilateral free trade agreement between the U.S., Canada and Mexico. The Secretariat focuses on the dispute settlement provisions of the NAFTA Agreement and the site contains the rules and the panel reports as well as links to other sites.
Other NAFTA sites include NAFTANET which contains a good deal of information related to NAFTA – text of the agreement, links to other sites, etc. See also the NAFTA Home Page (U.S. Dept. of Commerce), and LANIC’s (University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Latin American Studies) NAFTA Resources page. Another excellent resource is the NAFTA page posted by the U.S. Customs Office.
UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) Database. The CISG is referred to as the “Uniform International Sales Law of countries that account for two-thirds of all world trade.”3 This is a very comprehensive site on the CISG. It contains the text of the agreement, analysis, cases, scholarly materials, and more. The links to other international trade databases includes CISG web sites around the world. Other CISG related sites include UNILEX, a collection international case law and bibliography on the CISG, and the UNCITRAL which site contains the text of the agreement, ratification information, and abstracts of case law that refer to the CISG. For more information about the international sale of goods and associated topics, see the Private International Law chapter of the ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law.
World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO agreements provide for the legal framework for international commerce and trade policy. In the past getting the documents from the GATT was always a challenge unless you had access to the GATT microfiche (which most folks did not have). Now the WTO has entered the electronic age and the web site is the mechanism the WTO has chosen for disseminating information. Not only does this site have information about various trade topics (goods, services, development, etc.), more importantly, it contains the full-text of most documents distributed by the WTO since its creation in January 1995. The legal texts (Uruguay Round agreements) are also available. Another important feature of this site the dispute settlement section (including panel decisions). Lex Mercatoria has a nice collection of WTO agreements and other documents. For information on print and electronic sources related to WTO dispute resolution, see WTO Panel Decisions, compiled by Lyo Louis-Jacques, University of Chicago Law Library.
Listed below are some of the major international organizations involved in trade and related issues. In order to locate other international organizations, see the Union of International Associations, International Organization Web Site or the Northwestern University Library, International Organizations page. Both sites provide extensive lists of links to international organizations of all types.
ALADI. (Latin American Integration Association). Its goal is to form reciprocal trade agreements in this region. The web site is only available in Spanish, but it does contain documents, publications and information about the organization.
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Its purpose is to sustain regional growth and development by strengthening the trading system between its members and reducing barriers to trade and investment. The APEC web site contains extensive information about the organization and its activities, plus many full-text documents.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The Member Countries are involved in a joint effort to promote economic cooperation and the welfare of the people in the region. The site contains information about the organization’s activities, documents, summit information, and country profiles.
European Union, Directorate General IV, Competition. The mission of the Competition Directorate General is to establish and implement a coherent competition policy for the European Union. It’s main areas of activities are antitrust, merger control, liberalization and state intervention, and state aid. Competition DG also deals with the international dimension of competition policy. The web site provides access to documents, bilateral and multilateral agreements, and EU legislation. See also, EUROPA, the official web site of the EU. It contains information on the institutions, policies, official documents and laws. For European Union law, see EUR-Lexwhich contains the legislation, treaties and case law. This site also provides the text of EU treaties.
G7 & G8. This group of industrialized nations meets to deal with the major economic and political issues facing their domestic economies and the international community as a whole. The site is a good collection of policy documents, scholarly writings, research, and links to related sites.
International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF is an independent international organization of the UN. Its purpose is to promote international monetary cooperation, expanding international trade and exchange stability, international balance of payments, etc. The web site contains information about the IMF’s policies and activities, rules, regulations and documents. The user can also search the database for relevant publications.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947 to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. The site contains information about international standards, including ISO 9000 and ISO 14000.
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). The primary task of the OECD is to enable its members to consult and cooperate with each other in order to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth in their countries and improve the economic and social well-being of their populations. The web site has the full-text of many documents, information about publications and statistics. There is also a page devoted to trade. Check out the links to Other Trade Sites, including national trade agencies, statistical agencies, and international and regional organizations.
Trade and Development Centre. A joint venture between the World Bank and the WTO. The site contains forums, guides, training information, and links to other trade-related sites.
World Bank. Its purpose is to provide funds and technical assistance to facilitate economic development. The web site is for the World Bank Group which is composed of the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the International Development Association, and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency. The site provides information about these institutions plus documents and data for businesses involved in international trade. The International Trade Division has its own page and it contains working papers and other resources.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). This organization is the core legal body of the UN charged with harmonization and unification of international trade law. The web site contains the documents resulting from the work of UNCITRAL (including sales of goods, arbitration, etc.), ratification information, abstracts of case law, and other information.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly in the field of trade and development and its aim is to promote better international trading conditions for developing nations. UNCTAD publishes annual reports related to trade (Trade and Development Report, World Investment Report) and information about these and other UNCTAD documents are available on the web site.
Many U.S. government agencies promote free trade and offer resources in support of these efforts.
International Trade Administration (Dept. of Commerce). The ITA is charged with assisting and encouraging U.S. exports and ensuring that U.S. businesses have equal access to foreign markets. As such, this web site offers a variety of resources for conducting business overseas. The Regions and Countries page provides access to many ITA web sites that focus on the leading markets of the world. The markets include Africa and the Near East, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and the Western Hemisphere. The Commercial Service offers Country Commercial Guides.
Another service provided by the ITA is the Trade Information Center. This is a comprehensive resource for information on all federal government export assistance programs. The information provided ranges from news and current events, export programs, tariffs and customs information, and country and regional market information. For information on import administration, see the ITA page devoted to this information. It contains suspension agreements, information on antidumping and countervailing duty cases, statistics, and an import document library.
MAC On-Line – Market Access and Compliance (Dept. of Commerce). This site offers U.S. companies a wide range of information on accessing foreign markets. One of the featured sections is the Trade Compliance Center (TCC). This database provides the text of trade agreements, foreign market information, success stories, and links to other sites.
The Dept. of Commerce also offers the FEDWORLD database, a comprehensive central access point for searching, locating, and acquiring government and business information. Search for government reports and other publications through the NTIS International Trade and Business Bookstore.
United States Trade Representative. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) is responsible for developing and coordinating U.S. international trade, commodity, direct investment policy, and leading or directing negotiations with other countries on such matters. The site offers agreements negotiated by the USTR, documents, reports and press releases. There is a nice collection of Reports Issued by the Office of the United States Trade Representative and Related Entities, including the Annual Report of the President of the United States on the Trade Agreements Program.
International Trade Commission. An independent, quasi-judicial federal agency that provides objective trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches of government, determines the impact of imports on U.S. industries, and directs actions against certain unfair trade practices. This site contains documents, reports and publications, hearings, links to trade resources, and the Harmonized Tariff Schedule. For more information tariffs and import data, see the Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb.
U.S. Business Advisor. The International Trade section provides resources and information about country research, exports and imports, investment, and financing.
GLOBUS and NTDB. Offered by STAT-USA, this site offers daily trade leads from the Trade Opportunities Program (TOPS), as well as many other sources of trade information. The International Trade Library is a comprehensive collection of over 40,000 documents related to international trade. All documents are searchable by keyword, country or product. Please note that most of the information on this site is accessible by subscription only.
U.S. Customs Service. The Importing/Exporting section of the site has a good deal of information about rules & regulations, procedures, statistics and also provides useful forms.
United States Court of International Trade. Formerly known as the US Customs Court, this Court has authority to decide any civil action against the United States, its officers, or its agencies arising out of any law pertaining to international trade. The information on this site is limited right now to 1999 slip opinions.
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC). This federal appellate court’s jurisdiction includes customs and international trade law appeals from the U.S. Court of International Trade and the U.S. International Trade Commission. At this site, you can obtain copies of the CAFC’s opinions and decisions, court rules, information on recent disposition of cases, and a list of pending cases.
The sites listed below provide guidance on doing business in various countries or regions, information about importing and exporting products, and other useful pieces of advice about the business climate and local customs. For other information about specific countries (legal system, government information, and so forth), see Library of Congress Country Studies, Foreign National Governments Page (International Documents Task Force) or The Electronic Embassy.
Annual Barclay’s Counry Reports. This site provides information on the politics, structural features, economic policy, foreign trade and debt, and contacts for doing business in fifty selected countries around the world.
Arab World Online. This is a project of the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce and contains extensive trade and investment information for Arab countries as well as country laws and legal structures that affect trade and investment.
Background Notes (U.S. Dept. of State). The Department of State’s Background Notes provides preliminary information on geography, people, government, economy, foreign affairs, history, and human rights of the world’s countries.
BISNIS (Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). BISNIS is the site to go to when considering trading with or investing in a Newly Independent State. The Department of Commerce supplies country reports, industry reports, customs information, current U.S. exports to NIS countries, and sources of finance for business ventures in a NIS country.
CEEBICnet (Central and Eastern Europe Business Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). CEEBICnet is a mirror site to BISNIS. The Department of Commerce also supplies country reports, industry reports, customs information, current U.S. exports to CEEBIC countries, and sources of finance for business ventures in a CEEBIC country.
Countries in Africa (Mbendi Information Services). The country profiles contain information on taxation, tariffs, intellectual property, financial indicators, privatization, exchange rates, regulatory framework, and political structure of every African country.
Country Commercial Guides (Trade Compass). The Country Commercial Guides provide data on trade, investment, politics, marketing U.S. products and services, and leading sectors for U.S. exports and investment.
Country Fact Sheets (Export-Import Bank of the U.S.). The site contains guidelines for financing, loan information, and risk assessment for international business ventures.
Country Guides (Singapore Trade Development Board). These country guides provide links to government agencies, banks, stock exchanges, trade associations, and publications for twenty-eight selected countries.
Country Library (Tradeport). This site provides information on trade, financing controls, market research reports, and industry sector analysis for most countries of the world.
Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices (U.S. Dept. of State). As required by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, the Department of State submits to Congress its Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices. Each report contains information on key economic indicators, general policy framework, exchange rate policies, structural policies, debt management policies, significant barriers to U.S. exports and investments, export subsidies policies, protection of U.S. intellectual property, and worker rights on the countries with which the United States has significant trade relationships.
Doing Business Around the World (Ernst & Young). Ernst & Young provides information on tax and immigration problems of international business.
Doing Business Guides (Lex Mundi). Lex Mundi maintains an important legal guide to international business. Country-specific legal issues include energy, choice of business structure, taxation, real estate, resolving commercial disputes, and enforcement of judgements.
Regions and Countries (International Trade Administration). This site provides links to various ITA websites providing trade and investment information.
Trade Compliance Center, Market Access Information (U.S. Dept. of Commerce). This site provides information about the political environment, marketing of US products and services, leading sectors for U.S. export and investment, trade regulations and standards, investment climate, trade and project financing, and key economic indicators.
Trade Links by Country (University of Texas – Latin American Network Information Center). Links to government agencies, trade associations, chambers of commerce, banks, and trade publications for Central and Latin American countries.
These statistical sources provide data on country and regional economic growth, imports and exports, commodities, country trade information, and other financial data. Some of the sites listed below also collect statistics on demographics, socio-economic factors, and population.
Country Data (World Bank). This site contains statistical information on poverty, structure of the economy, prices and government finance, trade, balance of payments, external debt, resource flows, and key economic indicators.
EUROSTAT (Statistical Office of European Communities). EUROSTAT is the European network for distributing official statistics, using uniform rules to harmonize statistical data on all European Union Member States. Economic indicators include national accounts, monetary and financial indicators, external trade numbers, prices and producer price indexes, industrial production, and unemployment.
Foreign Trade Statistics (U.S. Census Bureau). Provides links to data on imports and exports by related parties, profiles of U.S. exporting companies, commodity trade data, export classification assistance, and to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule.
International Trade Statistics (STAT-USA). The STAT-USA site provides links to the National Trade Data Bank as well as comprehensive data compilation on U.S. exports by commodity, U.S. exports by country, U.S. imports by commodity, and U.S. imports by country.
Office of Trade & Economic Analysis (ITA, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). This site accesses information on U.S. industry and trade outlooks, U.S. foreign trade data, U.S. industry sector data, trade policy information, and state export data.
Statistics (UN/ECE Statistical Division). Contains statistical information on information technology, economic indicators, social and demographic indicators, the environment, transportation, and trade for Europe, Canada, the United States, and all member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States including some Asian republics.
Statistics and Other Statistical Sources (OECD). The OECD’s site provides statistics on main economic indicators, economies in transition, labor force, agriculture, national accounts, purchasing power parities, capitol stocks, and international trade in goods and services of member countries.
Statistics Division (UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs). This site is an extensive list of statistical compilations on economic, political, social, environmental, and developmental data.
STATLinks. Links to Statistical Resources on the Internet (USDA & U.S. Census). This is the ultimate guide for anyone with an interest in statistics. This site provides links to guides to statisticians, government statistical agencies, universities with statistics programs, journals of statistics, and computer software to facilitate statistical work.
Trade Statistics (WTO). The WTO site provides access to data on world merchandise trade by region and selected economies, world trade of commercial services by region and selected economies, and selected tables from the WTO’s Annual Report on International Trade Statistics.
The sites listed above just scratch the surface of the complex topic of international trade. These sources should provide the basic agreements and offer other resources for obtaining more trade-related information. The practitioner and the researcher may find themselves delving into other areas related to international trade, such as exports and imports, contracts, antitrust, agency and distribution, insurance, letters of credit, taxation, arbitration and dispute resolution. Not to mention the need for the domestic laws of the country where the goods and service are being bought or sold. Some of the guides and links mentioned in section II of this guide provide guidance on researching these related topics. Look for more guides on trade and transnational business transactions in future issues of LLRX.
For more information about the complexity of this subject, see Ralph H. Folsom et al., International Trade and Investment in a Nutshell (St. Paul, Minn., West Publishing Co., 1996) and Ralph H. Folsom et al., International Business Transactions in a Nutshell (St. Paul, Minn., West Publishing Co., 1996). < back to text>
Such sources include The International Lawyers Deskbook (Washington, DC: Section of International Law and Practice, ABA, 1996), Mae N. Schreiber, International Trade Sources: A Research Guide (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997) and Introduction to International Business Law: Legal Transactions in a Global Economy (Gitelle Seer and Maria Smolka-Day eds., New York: Oceana Publications, 1996). For definitions of trade terms, acronyms and abbreviations, see Jerry M. Rosenberg, Dictionary of International Trade (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994). < back to text>
Pace University School of Law, Pace Law Library and the Institute of International Commercial Law, UN Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG) Database. < back to text>